Managing scale and mealybug insects presents unique challenges. Products with contact modes of action must be applied at specific timings in order to reach the most susceptible crawler stages. Products with systemic modes of action may work well for certain species and not others based on application timing and whether the insect feeds within phloem or xylem. In 2003, IR-4 initiated a high priority project to determine efficacy of several insecticides on several scale and mealybug species so data can be obtained to add appropriate species to existing registrations. This research was conducted between 2004 and 2015.This report is a brief summary of available data from eighty-two experiments received through the IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program.
Several neonicotinoids (Aloft SC/Celero 16WSG, Flagship 0.22G/25WP, Safari 2G/20SG/Transtect 70WSP, and TriStar 30SG/70WSP), insect growth regulators (Distance and Talus 40SC/70DF), and other products were tested against scales and mealybugs. All products tested generally provided excellent control of elongate hemlock scale, cryptomeria scale, gloomy scale, citrus mealybug and Mexican mealybug, generally mediocre to excellent control of false oleander scale, Fletcher scale, Florida wax scale, magnolia scale, and poor control of armored scale. For other species, efficacy levels varied with the active ingredient and method/timing of application.
All products tested on citrus mealybug and Mexican mealybug, including Aria, Flagship, Safari, Talus, and TriStar, generally provided good to excellent control of these species. A experiment on Madeira mealybug showed excellent control when TriStar was mixed with Capsil surfactant, and poor control without Capsil. Rycar, Safari and Talus provided good to excellent control of this species, while A16901B provided mediocre control when applied as drench but good when applied as foliar treatment. Phormium mealybug control was good to excellent with all neonicotinoids tested – Flagship, Safari and TriStar. Good to excellent control of Rhizoecus root mealybug was obtained with A16901B, Aria, Kontos, MBI-203, MBI-205 and Safari in single experiments.
Three recently registered products (Mainspring, Rycar and XXpire), and three new experimentals (BAS 440, BYI-2960 and IKI-3106) looked promising on several species based on their efficacy relative to standards. Further research is needed to obtain additional efficacy data to recommend actions to register or amend labels for these pests.